The evolution   Home pages  

Card 1

From parallel informatics to teleadministration

Documentation

Index

Card 2

News in brief: contents

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Chronology of law currently in force

Card 4

The 10 fundamentals

Card 5

Parallel informatics graph n. 1

Card 6

Parallel informatics graph n. 2

Card 7

Teleadministration graph


 

NEWS IN BRIEF

Until the end of the last century, Public Administration worked exclusively with handwritten documents; even the change from hand to typewritten documents raised legal problems as to the validity of non -hand written documents.

For over 70 years (end of the last century to c. 1950) no major technological innovations were brought in to improve the efficiency of administrative procedures. During the 1950 punched cards were introduced in certain sectors in order to sort documents automatically.

In the 1960s, computers made their first appearance, and their evolution is known now to everybody (size, cost, speed, increased memory capacity). Only gradually was the importance of the on-line computers realized.

What we are talking about is "administrative informatics", linked etymologically to the French concept "information automatique". Apart from mere information, administrative informatics means automatic elaboration of data as well as producing draught copies of acts which may be printed and signed by an authorized functionary.

Traditional administrative informatics (office data processing) has the enormous handicap of being merely a support of the ordinary system at paper work, and is often only a duplication of the old system. This can be defined with the critical expression "parallel informatics".

The idea of abolishing this duplication dates back to 1978 ( Duni, Convegno Cassazione and in Rivista amministrativa Rapubblica italiana) and was developed in 1991 through a project known as "Teleadministration project". It involves 10 fundamentals ( see table n°. 4 aimed at developing total telematic management of procedures which can only be realized by awarding full legal validity to acts in electronic form. The paper phase of procedures must disappear and is only resorted to when ‘copies’ of the ‘original’ electronic document are required.

Telematic management of bureautics speeds up administration work enormously for a number of reasons; (see Teleadministration" under encyclopedia) it makes for transparency since a procedure that was created and exists inside a computer network is available not only for administration work to be carried out on it, but also for obtaining information. It makes employees and functionaries responsible for every single phase of administrative procedures. The system identifies the person responsible for any delays because there will be clear evidence of the time and date of each phase of the procedure.

These innovative ideas are obtaining legal recognition - legal value of electronic data processing and teleadministration of payment orders ( see card n°. 3)


 

CHRONOLOGY

1978 Introduction of the concepts of: Acts in electronic Form; electronic signature; administrative informatics (G. Duni in atti convegno Cassazione e Rivista Amministrativa Rep. Italiana)

1991

Conception of the project termed "Teleadministration", Atti Convegno Cassazione- Univ. Sapienza

1991-97

Further research and publication, including reference in the Treccani encyclopaedia of Law- "Teleadministration"

1993

Creation of the Public Administration Informatics Authority (AIPA) and in the same legislative decree - legal recognition of an act in electronic form - (D. Leg. 12 February 1993, n. 39, Art. 3)

1994

State administrations are introduced to the fundamental principles of teleadministration in the procedures for payment orders and telematic control by the " Corte dei Conti" ( DPR 20 April 1994, n. 367, which modifies the regulation of accounts R.D. 23 May 1924, n°. 827)

1997

Terminology regarding legal validity of electronic acts is defined with greater precision: law 15 March 1997, n. 59, art. 15, paragraph 2. Regulations to determine warranty rules are devised (i.e; criteria for so-called electronic signature). This also concerns acts presented by private citizens. The new regulation - already published on Sole 24 ore on 6-7 August 1997 - is based on the principle of asymmetric encryption; it is known as D.P.R. 10 November 1997, n. 513, but was published only in the Official Gazzette on 13 March 1998 (n. 60).

1997

The AIPA presents and publishes on the Internet draught regulations in which favourable judgment is expressed concerning work by American and Swiss experts on Authenticity guarantees of judicial acts: assimetric encryption: an electronic document is identified by an "electronic signature" based on a secret encryption, but legible (only legible) through the use of a public reading key.

1998

Regulation on single counter 20 October 1998 No. 447

1998

Regulation on keeping of computer based administrative record (DPR 428/98)

1999

Adoption of technical rules on digital siganture for computer based documents. DPCM 8 February 1999, published in the Official Gazette N.87 on 25 March 1999.

1999

Regulation on telework in Public administration (DPR 8  March 1999, n.70 in the Official gazette on 25 March 1999)

1999

Directive of prime Minister 28 October 1999 on computer based management of document flow in public administrations. Establishment of the " Committee technological innovation in administrative proceedings"

1999

Passing of technical rules on computer based record forseen by DPR 428/98. AIPA meeting 2 December 1999.

2000-2002
Single text about administrative documentation. President of Republic Decree n.445/2000 modified by Legislative Decree dated 23th January 2002, n. 10 and by President of Republic Decree dated
7th April 2003, n. 137, accomplishment of directive 1999/93/CE.
2001
Foundation of innovation and technology Department at Presidency of Cabinet (Decree of the Presidency of of the Council Ministers dated 27th September 2001)
Foundation of the innovation and technology Minister (Cabinet President Decree dated 11th June 2001).
2003
Conversion of AIPA into CNIPA (National Centre for Computer Science in Public Administration), provided by the article 176, paragraph 3, 4, 5 and 6, of Legislative Decree dated 30th June 2003, n. 196 (Protection of personal details Code)
2005
Legislative Decree dated 28th February 2005, n. 42: Foundation of public system connection and international network of public administration, according to the article 10 of law n. 229, dated 29th July 2003
Legislative Decree dated 7th March 2005, n. 82: digital administration Code (Official Gazette dated 16th May 2005)

Near Future developments

Regulations on telematic proceedings concerned specifically with problems of warranties and access levels, different from warranties for completed acts. The University of Cagliari is undertaking an experiment in its own administration, and is also proposing a regional law on this matter.


 

THE TEN FUNDAMENTALS OF TELEADMINISTRATION

1 The citizen presents a petition to an administration that then assumes responsibility for the whole procedure (Accomplishment of Article 4, paragraph 1, Law. 241/90 und Article. 5 D. Leg. n. 29 del 1993).
2 One file only is opened, irrespective of the number of administrations involved.
3 For both internal and external stages in an administrative procedure, a "warning signal" is sent telematically to the relevant functionary or employee responsible for the next stage in the procedure. (Accomplishment and overcoming of Art. 5, paragraph 1, Law 241/90).
4 Any information concerning records already held by public administration is accessed telematically, without involving the citizen (.Accomplishment and overcoming of Art .18, paragraph 2 und 3, Law 241/90).
5 Electronic signatures identify an official using sophisticated techiniques.
6 the original of an administrative act is electronic and is therefore always available telematically to any administration that may need it.
7 Private citizens can obtain paper copies of electronic acts.(This will be necessary in very few cases; it will no longer make sense to present documents to other Public Administrations).
8 The presence of an increasing amount of data on-line will necessitate greater use of automatic data processing in decision making.
9 "WORM" disks with multiple memories will guarantee the storing of acts.
10 A link to SI.STA.N. is scheduled. Information from statistical surveys on administrative questions will be accessed automatically in real time, thus facilitating top level decisions.

 

Keywords of site

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